What are depressive disorders?
Depressive disorders are identified in persons by consistent feelings of sadness and/or decreased interest or pleasure in activities, which interferes with daily living, vocation and overall life. Symptoms can affect how a person thinks, feels, behaves, and can lead to emotional and physical challenges. The cause of it is unknown, however, genetics, change in biology, environment and psycho-social impacts can have a direct correlation. Depressive disorders may occur once in a lifetime or can transpire in multiple episodes. The treatment of any type of depressive disorder includes prescribed medication, psychotherapy, and/or both.
Common types of depressive disorders with DSM-5 coding
- Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder – DSM-5 code: 296.99
- Major depressive disorder – DSM-5 code: 296.21-296.36
- Persistent depressive disorder (Dysthymia) – DSM-5 code: 300.4
- Premenstrual dysphoric disorder – DSM-5 code: 625.4
- Substance/medication-induced depressive disorder – DSM-5 code: 291.89-292.84
- Depressive disorder due to another medical condition – DSM-5 code: 293.83
- Other specified or unspecified depressive disorder – DSM-5 code: 311
Symptoms & common characteristics
- Feelings of sadness, emptiness, tearfulness, worthlessness and/or hopelessness
- Low self-esteem, mood swings, self-deprecating thoughts
- Angry outbursts, feeling angry, irritability or frustration most of the day
- Tiredness, lack of energy, added effort to complete small tasks
- Sense of feeling overwhelmed or out of control
- Diminished interest or pleasure in activities
- Unexplained physical pain, back, headaches
- Lack of sleep, insomnia, hypersomnia
- Reduced appetite, weight loss
- Increased appetite, weight gain, food cravings
- Difficulty with remembering, thinking, concentrating and/or making decisions
- Thoughts of death and/or suicide, suicide ideation, suicide planning, suicide attempt
Centre for Accessibility support for depressive disorders may include
- Time accommodation for exams
- Separate setting/distraction reduced exam setting
- Listening to CAS approved music during exams
- Note-taking services
- Mood disorders are one of the most common mental illnesses in the general population.
- Studies have consistently documented higher rates of depression among women than among men: the female-to-male ratio averages 2:1.
- According to Statistics Canada's 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) on Mental Health, 5.4% of the Canadian population aged 15 years and over reported symptoms that met the criteria for a mood disorder in the previous 12 months, including 4.7% for major depression and 1.5% for bipolar disorder.
- As many as one in five teens report suicidal ideation in the past year.
- Suicide is the second leading cause of death among young Canadians, accounting for almost one-quarter of all deaths at ages 15 to 24.